Saturday, February 22, 2020

Acquisition strategies in the plastic pipes industry - the case of Dissertation

Acquisition strategies in the plastic pipes industry - the case of Wavin Group - Dissertation Example One of the most important challenges for modern organizations has been the identification of the strategies that can help towards the stabilization of the organizational performance – either in the short or the long firm. Acquisitions have been proved an effective strategic tool for the support of a firm’s position in its market. However, the success of acquisitions is not always guaranteed; there is always the risk of failures especially if the relevant plans are not well designed or in case they are not effectively executed. For this reason, it would be wise for strategic managers to use acquisitions along with other strategic options in order to secure the stabilization (at a first level) and the growth of a particular organization. An indicative example of such methodology is the strategic framework used by AXA (Consultancy Firm) when handling the re-structuring of PWPipe – a leading firm in the plastic pipes industry of USA; in the case of PWPipe the consult ants of AXA decided to implement primarily a series of strategies for supporting the firm’s existing operations – this was mainly achieved through the update of the firm’s IT systems; at the next level, acquisitions were used in order to stabilize the firm’s growth (AMX International, 2011). The proposed study focuses on the use of acquisitions as strategic option by firms in the plastic pipes industry; reference is particularly made to Wavin Group, a key player in the global plastic pipes industry.... h firm, aiming to increase its influence within the global market (Builders Merchant Journal, 2007, Wavin Labko, 2008); in 2010, the expansion of the firm was continued through the acquisition of the Swedish firm KWH Pipe (European Plastic News, 2010). It is made clear that acquisitions has been extensively used by Wavin Group in order to improve its position in the global market; in accordance with ‘Michael Del Pero - vice president in FocalPoint Partners LLC - a lot of plastics M&A announcements were expected in the second half of 2010 because of the tax changes in USA’ (Esposito, 2010). However, in the case of Wavin, the tax rules cannot be considered as the only criterion for choosing acquisitions as a key strategic option – taking into consideration the firm’s relevant activities in the last decade, as explained above. In any case, the plastic pipes industry is a prominent market sector; in fact, in accordance with a relevant report, the specific indus try is expected ‘to advance at the fastest pace up to 2014’ (Bombourg, 2010). The identification of the potentials of acquisitions to support the further growth of the particular industry would be particularly important indicating the potential value of the specific strategic option for firms operating in other industries – which face severe pressures due to the expansion of the globalization and the recession. C. Literature Review The use of acquisitions as a strategy for achieving a continuous growth or for facing the strong market pressures has become a common phenomenon the last three decades (Hitt et al. 2009, 183). In practice, acquisitions can be described as ‘the use of cash outflows for purchasing the net assets or property plant, and equipment of the acquired business’ (Tortiorello 2008,

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Social capital Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1000 words

Social capital - Essay Example 42) and intricacy and complexity associated with the word has not been reduced since then. But William Sewell (2008, p. 42) goes on to explain that culture is that part of the social life that needs to be separated from the actual human existence constituting economics, biology or politics. The concept culture has itself intrigued our lives and is the most crucial component of human existence yet its constituting elements are different for the people living in the different areas of the world. We are all identified and recognized by our culture we have adopted while living in our own family, society and even our country. Mathew Arnold, the nineteenth century poet and essayist, used the term culture to speak about as model of individual human refinement as he opined that culture means, â€Å"the best that has been thought and said in the world† (1999, p. 190). This conceptual analysis of this culture is quite similar to the German concept of the term bildung (Arnold 1999, p. 19 0). In other words it is an attempt to achieve total precision and a way of knowing others on the matters which are of deep concern to us. Yet the word itself is shrouded in the most debacle position as different propounders, anthropologists and even socialists are explaining the term in different contexts. They go on to the extent of explaining culture as a part of a science as it is associated with the human evolution, while others suggest that it germinates in the minds of the individuals who are more and more linked to their ancestral roots. Cultural socialists felt the necessity to show that culture has an impact on the upbringing of the children and to gain their identity and recognition in the society. This allowed many to formulate the culture as assortment of different items whose impact on the behavior can be scrupulously compared to that of standard sociological variables like class, gender, ethnicity, economic interest and level of education (Sewell 2008, p. 45). It was thus assumed that culture as a system of symbols and meanings defined by Weberian, Parsonian and Durkheimian as ambiguous rather metaphorically it’s a collection of tools understood as a way of carrying out combined activities in the society (Sewell 2008, p. 45). In the United Kingdom, Stuart Hall, Raymond Williams and other scholars as well as sociologists greatly influenced by Marxism formed cultural studies, and connected the culture with consumer goods and services and leisure activities like music, film, art, food, sports etc. It is the various means of production that determine the class relations and how the goods and services are consumed by the large number of people. The term â€Å"cultural studies† was first coined in 1964 by Richard Hoggart when Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies was founded by him in Birmingham. Since then it has been associated with Stuart Hall as he became the next director after Hoggart (Munt 2000, p.4). In United States of Americ a, the terms culture and cultural studies connote the study of the popular culture (Munt 2000, p. 6), in other words, it is the way people feel themselves associated and share voices and ideas and about the things we make use of in the daily life. Today what constitutes culture is the way we live, eat, wear, behave in the

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Environment Analyses That Will Impact Burger King Marketing Essay

Environment Analyses That Will Impact Burger King Marketing Essay This research market proposal is for Burger King for their marketing strategies to launch their new cafe in competition with McCafe of McDonalds. This report is an in depth analysis of its Internal and the External Environment that will influence Burger Kings success and fail. Burger King is well known thought-out to be a major fast food chains in the world. This proposal explores the three key environment analyses that will impact Burger King: External-Environment Internal Environment The overall report is about PESTEL, Porters 5 Forces model, and SWOT analysis. These current strategies will determine the competitive and how successful Burger King is in the market before launching a new cafe and take into account the ,market analysis and situation. Introduction Burger King is a global chain fast food restaurant which was founded in 1955 in United Sates in Florida owned by David Edgerton and James McLamore. By the year 2011, 12,400 outlets were opened by Burger King in 73 countries including New Zealand. Since its opening in 1955 the menu for the Burger King has evolved from basic offering of French fries, sodas, milkshakes, and burgers to more diverse and lager set of products. Between 2002 and 2010, Burger King targeted large products that carried large amounts of unhealthy fats to 18-34 male demographic. In 2011 Burger King moved away from male oriented menu to new menu items with packing and product reformulations (The Free Encyclopedia, 2012). Burger Kings franchise is one of the means of expanding its operation. Burger King acts as a franchisor laying down precisely procedures and rules for other franchisee to follow. To achieve volume growth Burger King associated itself with multinational expansion for a large saturated market place (Made Easy). Burger King is ranked second next to McDonalds in terms of size and number of stores but their brand name is the most widely-recognized brands in the world which sets them apart from their competitor. Burgers Kings innovative and more food menu choices help them to be competitive in the market and maintain the customer it has. The main menu Burger King has is French Fries, cheeseburgers, and chicken and fish sandwiches, breakfast items, hamburger, onions rings, soft drinks, salads, desserts and etc. (Made Easy). Political and Legal Issues In New Zealand to conduct a market research first we will have to become a member of the Market and Research Social Research Society (MRSRS) which is a professional organization for any researcher who is interested in conducting a market research. This agency has set of regulations of professional behavior to abide by. There are policy act and principles that will have to follow when collecting, storing, and using and disclosing personal information (MRSNZ 2012). The political and legal forces that will affect the Burger King for their marketing strategies will be the monetary and fiscal policies of the government where interest rates, tax legislation affecting the marketing system, a good example will be GST (Rix, 2004, p. 48) . Other legal laws that will affect the Burger King will be Fair Trading Act 1986 in this act, if an employee makes a misrepresentation or misleading claim about the product, such a claim would be deemed to breach the act (Parliamentary Counsel Office, 2012). For Burger king to open up a cafe in their restaurant they will have to comply with Food Act 1981 rules and regulations like food safety regulations and, food fees charges regulation (Ministry For Primary Industries, 2012). The privacy act 1993 will requires Burger King to advice their customers of the intended purpose of information held about them after the market survey. These acts promote and protect individuals information privacy who will take part in the marketing survey and research (Parliamentary Counsel Office, 2012). Ethical Issues Ethics is basally the moral conduct of the business what is right or wrong. Ethics for Burger King will be the corporate social responsibility of towards society and commit itself in the code to encourage diversity among employees, franchisers, business sources, community involvement and sponsorships and prevent discrimination within the company. Other ethical issues Burger King will face will be: Promoting ethical culture that values and respects all people Acting with honesty and integrity ethical standards which encourage compliance with all laws and company policies. Providing sponsorships, supporting local sporting teams, and helping young disable people in need. Ethics like refraining from using company position, information, and property for personal gain. Providing fair, timely, and full reasonable disclosures in the financial report with compliance to the law. Holding itself responsible and accountable for the action it takes (Corporate Responsibility 2012) Burger King will also have to consider about giving employment to disable people and also providing a car park space for them. Social Cultural Issues Burger King will have to consider the beliefs, social values, lifestyles, behavior and buying preferences of the people. New Zealand has many different races with different cultural, norms and values determine what is acceptable and what is not. When assessing the food requirements of a particular cultural or ethnic group Burger King will have to know the food requirement for each ethnic group. For example people with Hindu back group are mostly vegetarian so they will need products from Burger King that does not contain animal fat, eggs, or meat. As for Muslim community they will only eat halal certified foods so Burger King will have to consider these factors before opening up the cafà ©. Burger King will also have to consider about people who put emphasis on quality of life rather than the quantity of goods. Some buys will look for safety, durability, and value in the foodstuffs they buy. Some buys will desire for more physical goods in the belief that these will lead to greater levels of overall satisfaction and happiness for example more environmentally friendly products and introduction of recyclable packaging (Rix, 2004, p. 44). Burger King will also have to take in to the account the trends of male and female member within the household, especially about their purchasing power and decisions. Each gender will have different taste that will influence their buying (Rix, 2004, p. 44). SWOT Analysis For Burger Kings new Cafà © I will have to use Porters 5 forces model, SWOT and PESTEL Analysis to investigate the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of launching the new cafà ©. This situation analysis will summarize the Burger Kings current situation and will scan the external environment for strengths and weaknesses and environmental opportunities and threats. Strengths are business capabilities, competitive advantages and competencies. Weaknesses are business limitation. Opportunities are environmental trends to which business plan can be matched. Threats are environmental changes that would affect business operations or direction. Environmental analysis is very important in planning process as it enables us to collect the necessary information to assist management in decision making process. (Rix, 2004, p. 428) SWOT Analysis is a tool that Burger King can use to identify their internal strengths and weaknesses and opportunities and threats, and then develop strategies to deal with their situation (Rix, 2004, p. 428) (S) Strengths of Burger King will be the customer loyalty, market share, organizational efficiency, and product. Burger King is the second largest fast food hamburger restaurant in the world. Burger King has a strong brand equity when talked about wide selection of menu items, fast and efficient service, and innovative products. All this strong brand equity will favor and will help Burger King in their opening of the new Cafe and they also will get good customer loyalty. (Made Easy, 2012). (W) Weaknesses of Burger King over the years that contributed to its decline were its weak marketing campaigns. If Burger King has weak marketing campaigns then they will not able to communicate with their customers. Another weaknesses Burger King will face is the heavily relies on franchisee rather than corporately owned stores. Each franchise will try to sell and promote their product for customer loyalty and this can be a major drawback for Burger King in launches their new cafe (Made Easy, 2012). (O) Opportunities for Burger King will be their expansion strategy for new product development, particularly around breakfast in their new cafà ©. Burger King can set example for other franchise on how a cafà © should be operated. Opportunity like edifice its brand though advertisement campaign and expansion into up-and-coming markets can improve financial aspects of the business. (Made Easy, 2012). (T) Threats one of the biggest threats Burger King will face will be from McCafe of McDonalds which is the largest fast food chain restaurants. The competition among within these two companies will be characterized by price wars for the market share. This will make Burger King to heavily promote their product which will cost money and time. Other threats Burger King will face is consumers changing attitude and behavior towards eating healthier food choices. Now days consumers are more conscious about their health issues which may result them not buying for Burger King. Increasing labor cost will also put pressure on Burgers Kings finance (Made Easy, 2012). Figure Strength(S) Weaknesses (W) SO Strategies Use strengths to take advantages of opportunities WO Strategies Take advantage of opportunities by overcoming weaknesses or making them relevant ST Strategies Use strengths to avoid threats WT Strategies Minimize weaknesses and avoid threats Source: Have, S. T., Have, W. T., Stevens, F. (2003). Key Management Models. Great Britain: Biddles Ltd,Guildford Kings Lynn. According to (Have, Have, Stevens, 2003, p. 187) as shown in figure1Burger King can use SO and WT strategies meaning that they will able to do what they are good at. They will also able to steer the business clear from competencies in opportunity. If Burger King decides to use WO strategies then they will able to take on opportunity despite not having the requisite strengths, which means they will have to borrow or develop the required strengths to outmaneuver the competition. ST strategies if used by Burger King mean that they will bust or buy their way out of trouble. For example these strategies will make Burger King to fend off smaller cafà © by means of expensive price wars, multiple channels of promotions and with insurmountable marketing budgets. PEST Analysis PEST Analysis is at tactical planning means to evaluate the impact of the external environment like Political, Economic, Social and Technological factors on an organization (Haughey MPM, 2002). Burger King will have to use PEST Analysis is a vital ingredient in their planning process. (P) Political is factors like trade restriction, environment regulations, tax policy, and employment laws that Burger King will have to comply. New Zealand government also has legislation that governs the dissemination and preparation of the financial information so Burger King will have to comply with legislation when preparing annual report. (E) Economic factors are inflation rate, exchange rates, interest rates, and economic growth. Burger Kings cafes survival will depend on how New Zealand economic is doing. For example people must have money to spent and they should willing spend it. (S) Social is factors like emphasis on safety, cultural aspect and population age distribution. For example McDonalds sells soft drink made from an Amazonian beery in Brazil, milk shakes flavored with durian in Singapore and Malaysia, and in south East Asian it is aphrodisiac (Bartol, Tein, Matthews, Sharma, 2008, p. 79). Burger King will have to identify will menu will people of New Zealand will desire. Also any changes in socio cultural trends will shift the demand of a partially product mean. (T) Technological are technological changes that creates new processes of producing products and services. For example new coffee machine which will give Burger King a competitive edge. Porters Five Forces Burger Kings competitive position in a particular market will depend on which marketing and management model is available to them. Burger King can use Porters industry structure and generic strategies models. Michael Porter five major forces determine the nature of the competition in market. This will set the profit potential and competitive parameters for Burger King as shown in Figure 2. Potential EntrantsFigure 2: Porters Five Model Forces Threat of new entrants Industry Competitiors Rivalry among existing firms buyers Suppliers Bargaining power of suppliers Bargaining power of buyers Threat of substitute products or services Substitutes Source: Rix, P. (2004). Marketing A Practical Approach (5th Edition). NSW, Australia: McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. Porters competitive analysis identifies five fundamental competitive forces that will determine the relative attractiveness of Burger King. (Rix, 2004, p. 434) Threats of New Entrants if Burger King sees a strong probability of new firms entering their market, it will impact on how Burger King will operate. This risk is resolute by the extent of the industrys barriers to entry. For example if profits are only earned through economies of scale than the threat of entrant will be less. Also if Burger Kings capital investment in the cafà © is large and have product differentiation leading to customer loyalty, and high cost for customers to switch suppliers will also have barriers to entry by other firms. (Rix, 2004, p. 434) Threat of Substitutes Goods if Burger Kings products are reasonably cost efficiently and easily substituted by other products that gives the same satisfaction with low cost will mean restrict profits to Burger King. Burger King might also lose their customers but there can use product differentiation to promote and get their customers (Rix, 2004, p. 434). Buyers Bargaining Power if Burger King has a petite number on individually strong buyers then it will impact on their profit. The buyers can demand low prices, extended credit and very high levels of services. Other situations where products are homogeneous commodities and switching suppliers cost is low then the buyers strength is higher (Rix, 2004, p. 434) Suppliers Command of Industry if Burger Kings key ingredients are supplied by a small number of individually strong suppliers than it can put pressure on Burger Kings profits. Suppliers can control and increase prices, can demand fast payment or gives priorities to other competitor when it comes to supplying stock which will limit Burger Kings profit potential (Rix, 2004, p. 432) Existing Competitors. Some of the major competitors for Burger King will face are Mc Cafe, Starbucks, and Wild Bean Cafe etc. When all this consists number of companies starts to be competitive, it will have significant impact on Burger Kings profitability. Other factors that will intensify the competition in the market will be for customer loyalty and market share. it might be bit hard for Burger King to compete with them but if they do a market research and get feedback from the customers and promote their product at the right place, at right time ,and at the right price than Burger King will be able to succeed in their new product launching (Rix, 2004, p. 432) Porters Generic Strategies According to (Rix, 2004, p. 434) Burger King should be seen as a considerably different or supply at the lowest cost for means. They can be concentrating on specific niches or supply to the entire market. Burger King can use three generic strategies as shown in figure 3 STRATEGIC TARGET Figure 3: Three Generic Strategies STRATEGIC ADVANTAGE OVERALL COST LEADERSHIP DIFFERERENTION Uniqueness perceived by the customer Low cost position Industry wide FOCUS Particular segment only Source: Rix, P. (2004). Marketing A Practical Approach (5th Edition). NSW, Australia: McGraw-Hill Australia Pty Ltd. The three objective strategies are: Overall Cost Leadership Strategies will make Burger King to become the lowest cost cafe in the market by precisely selecting manufacturing ability and invention level, eliminating unprofitable customers and products. These strategies will provide protection against competitive substitutes and rivalrys (Rix, 2004, p. 435). Differentiation Strategies will make Burger King to promote and develop real or perceived differences between those of its competitors and Burger King. This strategies will protect Buger King by developing a brand loyalty against their competitors so that the consumers dont change suppliers (Rix, 2004, p. 435) Focus Strategies will make Burger King to adopt differentiation strategies or cost leadership strategies. This will make Burger King to focus on a particular segment of the market. This will provide a means of defenses to Burger King (Rix, 2004, p. 436) CONCLUSION Burger King operates in a very extremely competitive environment where the threat of competitors to Burger King is very high. It is very important for Burger King to build a point of differentiation that will make Burger King apart from all other competitors because its competitors are employing almost the same strategies that Burger King is employing. Operational excellence, high standard service, its innovative and quality products is what Burger King is known for today. So in order to remain competitive, Burger King must differentiate itself from its competitors which can be done through differentiation of products. Buger King must be able to maintain its global perspective, explore new markets and take advantage of new opportunities with the help of its market expansion strategies. The changing consumer preferences and demands also need to be satisfied. In order to do that, Burger King must develop a diverse product line.

Monday, January 20, 2020

Political Knowledge and Civic Engagement Essay -- Socioeconomic Status

The economic level also strongly effects on if young people have computer or not; also to have DSL or router for internet service also depending on how much money you have. B. K. L. Genova and Bradly S. Greenberc, 2006 indicated that the population with higher socioeconomic status their trends to political information a faster rate than lower status segments, so that the gap in knowledge between them trends to increase rather than decrease Age effects how University students rate credibility in online news and the students found online news more credibility than old media (Bucy, 2003),. Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996 young people with high levels of education have higher political knowledge and civic engagement (Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996). Speech researchers in this field have indicated that socio-economic status is another factor in assessing political knowledge and civic engagement, especially income; consequently, those with greater incomes are more engaged both civically and politically activities, and they are much more knowledgeable about politics issues than other groups with low income status (Delli Carpini & Keeter, 1996, p. 215; Schlozman & et al., 1999, p. 433). but the negative correlation between exposure to political comedy shows and age according to (Xiao Xia cao.2008, p, 56) in his study about the moderating effects of age and education in exposure to political comedy shows and its relation with political knowledge in 2000&2004 primary election campaigns in America but he found positive relationships between education " young people with high degree education more than lower level of educated " in political knowledge and political participation. Indeed, regarding the gender issue, the Internet allows the expr... ...g access to news and gaining information. Instrumental sites such as search engines, social contacts through e-mail, blogs, and Facebook, as well as the discussion of taboo topics are just some of the uses; along with entertainment, sports, and search for moral guidance and religious advice through religious websites (Bunt, 2009; Hofheinz, 2005; Abdulla, 2007 in Dominika and Sisler,210.p.3). -in Egypt and according to the Central Agency for Public Mobilization and Statistics the young people age (15-29) years as 2008 statistical were (35.5) million as (33.31%) of the total population and the gender ratio among Egyptian young people 103 males per 100 females; whereas the number of Internet users from young people (376.2) million (8.60%) men and (2.39%) women, this mean Men more likely to use and access the internet than women and this maybe for cultural reason .

Sunday, January 12, 2020

Organizational Transformation Q & a Paper

Organizational Transformation Q & A Paper Organizational transformation is vital to an organization. Organizational transformation â€Å"refers to organization-wide changes, such as reconstruction operations, introducing new technologies, processes, services or products, implementing new programs, re-engineering, ect (â€Å"Business / human,†). † Identifying and characterizing the roles of incentives, training, and education in promoting innovation in the organization can assist in organizational transformation.Also, knowing the role of leadership in creating, managing, and sustaining innovation in your organization will also assist in the transformation. Third assistance to a transformation would be to ensure that ethical implications are in place and lastly, if my personal organization is innovative or not. How would you identify and characterize the roles of incentives, training, and education in promoting innovation in your organization? Creativity and innovation ar e on the menu of skills that companies are now looking for in recruiting employees.This is why companies are increasingly hiring graduates of colleges. For existing employees, according to a Boston Consulting Group survey, not enough companies link incentives to innovation, â€Å"†¦while many companies clearly recognize the potential impact of metrics on behavior, very few firms attempt to aggressively leverage it by tying employee incentives directly to metrics. Indeed, less than a fourth of respondents said their companies link the two consistently, and nearly a third of our respondents said that their companies do not link incentives to innovation metrics at all (Lichtenberg, 2008). †In my own experiences, while many companies may not have explicit incentive programs to motivate innovation, many recognized innovation implicitly in their mainline compensation programs. However it is up to the supervisor to recognize an employee’s innovation contribution, there a re some employee suggestion programs that offer incentives for innovation. An example is Canon – when employees make a suggestion for a new idea to benefit the company, they are awarded variable amount of points. Every year the company has a President’s Award to the top 20 employees who have acquired the most points since the program began.They are awarded cash and a gold medal. While employers indicate that creativity skills are important, they are not doing much to train their employees. According to a study by the Conference Board, â€Å"Educators and employers both feel they have a responsibility for instilling creativity in the U. S. workforce (83 and 61 percent, respectively). However, their current creativity building offerings don’t match this desire (Lichtenberg, 2008). † What is the role of leadership in creating, managing, and sustaining innovation in your organization? The key to fostering innovation is leadership and how leaders influence the corporate culture.Leaders must build a culture of trust, one that promotes information sharing and a clear statement that creativity and innovation are encourage and will be rewarded. Here is an example, â€Å"Seth Waugh, CEO of Deutsche Bank Americas, cited culture as a critical factor in promoting innovation. Business leaders, he said, create this environment by offering incentives for workers who innovate and by making it clear that innovation is expected. You must have people with that hunger to always learn, who are always open and who think about things in a different way.You always have to reinvent yourself tomorrow (â€Å"Connecting the dots,† 2006). † What are the ethical implications of an individual reward system? Support your answer. While there is substantial material on Business Ethics in finance, executive behavior and other business functions there is little on the ethical considerations regarding compensation or reward systems. However, ethics as appl ied to rewards or compensation systems involve how these systems are designed to encourage employees to go beyond legal compliance and motivate them to act in morally, ethically manner.It also places a requirement on leaders to fair in how employees are compensated and rewarded. Would you describe your organization as innovative or non-innovative? Why? My organization, the United States Navy, is most definitely innovative. The mission statement of the Office of Naval Research states, â€Å"The Directorate of Innovation cultivates innovative science and technology approaches that support the Department of the Navy and facilitate rapid and agile responses to our changing national security environment (â€Å"Office of naval,†). With a mission statement such as that, it is clear that the United States Navy thrives on the most innovative technology, techniques, intelligence, and sciences. Without a mission statement like this, the world’s finest Navy could face security fl aws and intelligence deficiencies. Our Navy has the top of the line equipment and procedures with thanks to the innovators at the Office of Naval Research. References: Business / human resources (hr) / organizational transformation. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. superglossary. om/Definition/Human_Resources_(HR)/Organizational_Transformation. html Connecting the dots between innovation and leadership. (2006, October 04). Retrieved from http://knowledge. wharton. upenn. edu/article. cfm? articleid=1569 Lichtenberg, J. (2008). Ready to innovate. Retrieved from http://www. artsusa. org/pdf/information_services/research/policy_roundtable/ready_to_innovate. pdf Office of naval research. (n. d. ). Retrieved from http://www. onr. navy. mil/Science-Technology/Directorates/office-innovation. aspx

Saturday, January 4, 2020

Crisis Management And Prevention Process Essay - 1169 Words

Name: Instructor: Course: Date: Crisis Management and Prevention Process Introduction This paper will extensively cover the crisis prevention process. By citing various examples of crises that have occurred in the past, the crisis prevention process will be made more vivid. Additionally, this article will outline a variety of methodologies to be followed in the event of a crisis. It will also give personal opinions on the case of crisis prevention and farther explain the role of various societal authorities in crisis escalation. Finally, it will give substantial recommendation on the issue of crisis prevention. Crisis management, by definition, is the management of a situational occurrence that involves specific roles, processes and responsibilities that will efficiently handle the situation. Crisis management responses involve a variety of areas notably; crisis assessment, crisis prevention, crisis handling and termination. Proper understanding of the processes will result to efficient mitigation of crises. It is important to note that any organization or society has to be prepared for crises and respond rapidly in the event of one (Booth 56). The Exxon Crisis Back in 1989, Exxon was faced with a mega crisis when its oil tanker spilled 11 million gallons of oil in Alaska. This tragedy involved the accident involving the Exxon Valdez oil tanker. Due to accumulated fatigue, one of the crew members failed to properly maneuver the ship. Additionally, the crew master wasShow MoreRelatedCrisis Management Response Plan Essay1427 Words   |  6 PagesAn effective crisis management response plan outlines specific procedures for administrator, teachers, and students during evacuation emergencies. Administrators work with teachers, students, parents, law enforcement officers, business and community members, to develop an effective emergency and crises plan. 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Thursday, December 26, 2019

The Use of Guns for Self Defense to Deter Crime

The Second Amendment says, A well-regulated militia, being necessary to the security of a free state, the right of the people to keep and bear arms, shall not be infringed. It mentions nothing about self-defense. In modern American politics, however, much of the gun rights debate has centered on the aspect of using guns for defense of life and property. The D.C. handgun case and the Chicago gun ban challenge saw plaintiffs use self-defense as an effective argument for overturning gun bans. Today, several states have enacted often-controversial â€Å"stand your ground† or â€Å"Castle Doctrine† laws permitting, within specific legal parameters, the use of deadly force in acts of self-defense against actual or reasonably perceived threats of bodily harm. In February 2012, the fatal shooting of unarmed teenager Trayvon Martin by Sanford, Florida neighborhood watch captain George Zimmerman propelled state  stand your ground laws squarely into the spotlight of the gun control debate.   Exact numbers for the impact of firearms on crime are difficult to come by. Much of the research into the impact of guns as a crime deterrent comes from the work of Dr. Gary Kleck, a Florida State University criminologist. Guns in Self-Defense Kleck released a study in 1993 showing that guns are used in defense of crime 2.5 million times each year, an average of once every 13 seconds. Kleck’s survey concluded that guns are used in defense of crime three-to-four times more often than they’re used in the commission of a crime. Surveys conducted prior to Kleck’s found that incidents of gun use  in self-defense ranged from 800,000 to 2.5 million each year. A U.S. Department of Justice Survey released in 1994, â€Å"Guns in America,† estimated 1.5 million defensive gun uses each year. According to the U.S. Department of Justice report, Firearm Violence, 1993-2011, about 1% of nonfatal violent crime victims nationwide used a firearm in self-defense. From 2007 to 2011, there were 235,700 confrontations in which the victim used a firearm to threaten or attack an offender. This amounted to approximately 1% of all nonfatal violent victimizations in the 5-year period. Guns as a Deterrent Studies by Kleck and the Department of Justice concluded that guns are frequently used to protect crime victims. But do they serve as a deterrent to crime? Findings are mixed. A study by professors James D. Wright and Peter Rossi surveyed nearly 2,000 incarcerated felons and concluded that criminals are more worried about running into armed victims than law enforcement. According to the Wright-Rossi survey, 34% of the felons responding from state prisons said that they had been â€Å"scared off, shot at, wounded or captured† by a victim armed with a firearm. The same percentage said they worried about being fired upon by armed victims, while 57% said they were more concerned with encountering an armed victim than encountering law enforcement officers. Avoiding Armed Robberies America’s liberal gun laws are often criticized as a contributor to the U.S.’s relatively high rates of violent crime. Homicide rates in the U.S. are among the highest in the world, exceeding homicide rates in some nations that have clamped down on civilian gun ownership. However, Kleck studied crime rates from Great Britain and the Netherlands, two nations with much stricter gun ownership laws than the U.S., and concluded that the risk of armed robbery is lower in America because of loose gun laws. The rate of burglaries at occupied homes (â€Å"hot† burglaries) in Great Britain and the Netherlands is 45%, compared to a rate of 13% in the U.S. Comparing those rates to the percentage of hot burglaries in which the homeowner is threatened or attacked (30%), Kleck concluded that there would be an additional 450,000 burglaries in the U.S. in which homeowners are threatened or attacked if the rate of hot burglaries in the U.S. was similar to the rate in Great Britain. The lower rate in the U.S. is attributed to widespread gun ownership.   Updated by Robert Longley Sources Kleck, Gary, and Marc Gertz. Armed Resistance to Crime: The Prevalence and Nature of Self-Defense with a Gun. Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology Fall, 1995, https://scholarlycommons.law.northwestern.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article6853contextjclc. Planty, Michael, and Jennifer L. Truman. â€Å"Firearm Violence, 1993-2011.†Ã‚  Bureau of Justice Statistics, May 2013, www.bjs.gov/content/pub/pdf/fv9311.pdf. Wright, James D., and Peter H. Rossi. â€Å"PUBLICATIONS.†Ã‚  NCJRS Abstract - National Criminal Justice Reference Service, 1994, www.ncjrs.gov/App/Publications/abstract.aspx?ID155885.